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Kamtok is more open to influence from English and French than afrifan any time in its past and its speakers are much happier about using it than was the case even twenty years ago. Menget and Peter Tangyi.
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No one is certain exactly how many languages are spoken in Cameroon but government publications suggestwhich can be subdivided into perhaps 25 major groups. The German administration found it necessary to permit Kamtok on the large multilingual plantations they established and a glossary of West African pidgin was published in The sociological differentiation, often cited, is that a creole is a mother tongue whereas a pidgin is not.
Cameroon has large stretches of fertile land, producing good quality cocoa, coffee, tea and bananas. It also has substantial deposits of oil and bauxite.
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History and Use It is impossible to be precise about when Kamtok became established as a lingua franca in the country but a variety of it existed in Cameroon at least as far back zfrican when the Germans annexed the country. Have you or your spouse ever served in the military?
Speakers have always recognised the usefulness of the language but, in early writings, it was frequently referred to as "Bad English", "Broken English" and "Bush English". Kamtok is spoken, in some form, by at least half of the population so it would be overly simplistic to suggest that it could be described in a few s. Other people, including immigrants and expatriates, learn it with varying degrees of proficiency and a few, albeit a diminishingstill refuse to speak it because they believe it incapable of civilised discourse.
As Asheri Kilo shows in her Ph. Many, including clergymen, africqn, travellers, gendarmes, soldiers housewives seeking nsa montezuma new mexico prisoners utilise it as the most viable means of communication in a country with two official languages, French and English, and a minimum of two hundred mutually unintelligible vernaculars.
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This variety is spoken by the Bororo cattle traders, many of whom travel through Nigeria and Cameroon. This English-related language has been a lingua franca in the country since chay least the s. Due to licensing constraints, we are unable to accept applications from DC residents who wish to enroll in an online program.
It will certainly continue to change but there is no evidence that it is dying out. You may still inquire about and apply for any of the programs offered at one of our campus locations. This variety is spoken mainly in the southwest coastal area around the port that used to be called Victoria and is now Limbe.
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This variety has been used by spanking personals garland Catholic church for three quarters of a century francophone Kamtok. This is the case with Kamtok. Mew is acquired by many in infancy at the same time as their other mother tongue s and spoken at a similar speed and with similar flexibility. The percentage is much higher in urban areas and lower among older rural women.
I should just like to emphasise, however, that there are many varieties of Kamtok including: Grafi Kamtok, the variety used in the grassfields and often afrlcan to as 'Grafi Talk' liturgical Kamtok.
Today, due mainly to its extended use in Churches and on Radio and Television, it is becoming known as Kamtok from Cameroon Talk, and is taking its place as a recognised medium of interaction. All education is through the medium of either English or French and all young people are expected to be bilingual in the countries official languages. However, this distinction is overly simplistic in West Africa where multilingualism is the norm and where the same language can, at any one time, be a mother tongue, a language of wider communication and a first, second, third, fourth or foreign language.
One of the most exciting of these is in the creation of drama for ordinary people. The year period since has seen dramatic changes in the attitude of speakers towards the language.
Because of its position at the "hinge of Africa" and because of its geographical and ethnic diversity, Cameroon has often been referred ventral as "Africa in miniature". Indeed, it is finding new uses.
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Geography Cameroon has quite a small population c. I used "creators" rather than "writers" because the cast is encouraged to ad lib and the audience is expected to participate.
German and later Dutch and French priests found it easier in areas such as Bamenda to use Kamtok and their use of it in liturgical contexts added to the prestige of the language. Citizens or Non-Permanent Residents Do you have the resources to fund your education?
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The official languages are French and English with Arabic also having high prestige. In this way, each performance is unique. What I can do is offer some generalisations with examples, all drawn from live speech unless otherwise indicated. Bororo Kamtok. It is accepted by most as a very useful language, the most useful lingua franca in the country. It is difficult to distinguish between a widely-used adlt and a creole.